Forged from 1000's of hours at the front edge
of Java development, this course will greatly increase your
During this 4-day course, you'll study the most useful
Gang-of-Four design patterns: Singleton, Factory Method,
Abstract Factory, Template Method, Strategy, Iterator,
Observer, Adapter, Decorator, Composite, Visitor, Command,
Memento, Chain of Responsibility, State, Facade, Flyweight,
Bridge and Proxy.
What You'll Learn
- How a Java Specialist thinks when designing a Java
- Where the Gang-of-Four Design Patterns fit into Java
- How the Singleton Pattern can cause non-object oriented
- How to reduce common maintenance issues
- How to get rid of copy & paste code and pesky switch and
- Battle tested skills through hands-on exercises using UML
and Java code
About The Author
Heinz is the mastermind behind The Java Specialists'
Newsletter and the author of the Design Patterns Course.
In 2005, Heinz was chosen as a Java Champion by
Sun Microsystems, the inventors of Java, for his work in
advancing the language. Heinz has been invited to speak at
the top Java conferences and events around the world.
This course will teach you what every
programmer, who is serious about working with Java,
should know. Design Patterns, Varial
The [design patterns] course was
extremely interesting,informative and has shown me
deep insights. Brilliantly done! Uwe
The examples were very similar to what I
experienced in real life, since the course was
presented by someone who has practical experience
with software development in Java. You can rely on
the suggestions - they really work!
Combining UML and real examples used in
JDK makes this course a lot more interesting. I
have tried many times to read the Design Patterns
book, but somehow the text always seemed outdated
and not applicable.
Design patterns, Oracle
You couldn't ask for a more pleasant and
knowledgeable presenter. Very effective at getting
his point across with solid and meaningful
Design patterns, Oracle
The course was well organized. The
material was clear and very easy to follow, and the
labs reinforced what I learned during the
Alex Ruiz, jRoller
Open Enrollment 4 day course
Sign-up to one of our scheduled courses hosted by one of our
partners in a city nearest you. Our open courses are ideally
suited to government employees, individuals and companies a
with small number of programmers, also for companies without
(available) conference facilities.
In-House Course with Certified Trainer
One of our certified trainers will come to your company to
teach your developers. Ideal for classes from 10 up to 50
students and ideally suited to companies with lots of
Java/C++/C# developers. Banks, telecoms, insurance, IT.
||Fee per student
|Inhouse Design Patterns
||€ 9200 (up to 10)
Additional Costs: Hotel, taxis or car
hire, €75 per day, flights (business class if outside of
Full Course Outline
1. Introduction to Patterns
In the first section, we lay the foundation for the rest of
the course. We talk about why patterns are important, where
they come from, their general structure and give a UML
Importance of patterns
Experienced object oriented programmers use patterns to
build their software. This helps to make their components
reusable. The reduction in copy and pasted code makes
maintenance easier. In this section we look at why patterns
are important to help your team speak the same language.
We look at some great resources that explain where object
oriented design patterns come from. We look at some of the
great books on patterns in which you can find more detailed
information. Examples are: Head First Design Patterns,
Pattern Hatching and of course the famous Gang-of-Four
The name is useful to document which pattern we are
referring to. We talk about the dangers of having a weak name
and a strong pattern, as well as having a strong name and a
weak pattern. Or just having the wrong name to start
Throughout our course we use UML to describe the patterns.
We explain why being able to draw a class diagram of the
pattern is important.
A pattern has three main elements that identify it: its
name, its structure and its intent. We look at what the
structure typically looks like to help you recognise typical
patterns. However, the structure cannot give you a conclusive
answer as to what the pattern is. This can only be discovered
once you know what the intent of the author was.
We use UML class diagrams to describe the designs. In this
section we review the basic UML components used to show our
patterns. This helps us to understand the subtleties of
association, aggregation and composition. We also show how to
draw the UML components. We show why reverse engineering UML
from code is of little use.
We give a short tutorial on how to use the jpatterns.org
annotations to describe the design patterns in our code.
These will be used extensively in our coding to show what
patterns we were thinking of using.
Structural Patterns (I)
Our first stop is structural patterns, since most of us can
relate to these easily.
The Proxy pattern is used in many systems to provide
placeholder objects. Most programmers have seen or used this
pattern. This makes it a good first pattern to study as we
quickly see the benefit of using design patterns.
We study various ways of creating proxies. We show how to
write them by hand, how to generate them using the new Java 6
built-in compiler and how to create them as dynamic
proxies.We also study different uses of proxy types. Examples
are virtual, remote and protection proxies. We show how these
can be created with dynamic proxies or automatically
The virtual proxy creates objects on demand. It helps us
simplify our clients when we want to lazily create objects.
It does this by moving the lazy creation functionality into
the virtual proxy class. Students get to build their own
virtual proxy using dynamic proxies.
Remote proxies are used a lot in Java to communicate between
different machines. We look at the challenges with using this
type of proxy. Examples are the checked exceptions and the
much slower remote method calls.
Our last variation is the protection proxy, where we guard
the real object. As part of the exercises, students have to
build a protection proxy that only allows us to view salary
details if we have the right permissions.
The adapter is next. In a perfect world, this pattern would
not exist. However, often interfaces do not match correctly
between different parts of our system and this pattern is the
glue that connects these mismatched parts. We look at the
naming of this pattern, which has caused confusion in the
past. Lastly we compare the structure of this pattern against
The most common form of this pattern is the object adapter.
We explain why this is more flexible and typically the better
choice, even though it is more coding.
We also explain how we can create dynamic object adapters
using the dynamic proxy mechanism.
Class adapter is possible in Java, when the subject is an
interface, rather than a class. We talk about cases where the
class adapter is not possible to use. It is less code, so it
is a good first step, but if a class hierarchy evolves with
the adapted object, then it is better to use the object
The Facade pattern is often confused with the session
facade. In fact, it is not really a design pattern. Rather,
it is a necessary part of any complex design thanks to the
added flexibility that patterns bring.
Facade vs Session Facade
The Session Facade usually prevents direct access to the
single pieces of the subsystem. The GoF Facade allows direct
access to the subsystem. We also look at the motivation of
using the Session Facade.
Is it a Design Pattern?
We look at the question: Is the Facade really a design
When you have objects arranged in a tree structure, this
pattern will help you make clients simple. Clients do not
need to worry whether they are speaking to a single object or
a large group of objects. We explain why the interface at the
top of the hierarchy seems too general, but is in fact
exactly the way that it should be.
One of the posers of this pattern is how to find all leaves
of the tree without building up a temporary list. In our
exercise we discover how to do this in code.
Behavioural Patterns (I)
Our next set of patterns are used for algorithms and
behavior. They help to reduce duplicate code and get rid of
if-else and switch statements. Code becomes less complex with
less duplication, leading to lower costs.
The template method is used when we have some classes which
do the same thing, but a bit differently. We can replace the
duplicate code with a single template method and can push the
differences into primitive methods, which are contained in
We compare the template method to the strategy and show how
they might be combined to produce a truly flexible
We use this pattern when we need to have several ways of
doing the same thing. For example, we might want to sort a
list using as little temporary memory as possible. Or our
constraint might be CPU, in which case we would want to
replace our sorting algorithm with one that performs better.
We also see some of the drawbacks of using the strategy
pattern by studying the AWT layout managers.
Converting switch statements
When writing code, we should avoid using if-else or switch.
Every time we have a condition, we double the state space.
This makes it hard to test our code. Much better is to
encapsulate the functionality into strategy objects. In this
part we learn how to convert a switch statement into the
strategy pattern, thus reducing cyclomatic complexity and
making it easier to test our code.
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic State
We look at ways to reduce the intrinsic state of strategy
objects, so that we can share them between different
contexts. We do this by converting extrinsic state to
Most Java people think that they know the iterator, after
all, that is how we walk through groups of objects. However,
the GoF pattern has some interesting variations and options
that are not available in the Java version. For example, why
does it have to be the client that controls the iteration?
How could we write a robust iterator in Java? This pattern
has a lot more facets than most people realize.
A robust iterator will preserve the order even if the
objects are changed whilst we are walking through. This
should be achieved without copying the collection. We look at
various approaches to building this.
One of the subtleties of this pattern is the question: who
controls the iteration? In this pattern, we show how we can
do this from within the collection, thus taking care of
synchronization in a much better way than if we lock from
outside. The WalkingCollection is an example of how this can
The observer pattern is one of the most prolific ideas in
object oriented designs. It helps us to decouple the
components. We show how the Java observer was implemented and
use this to build a simple stock price viewer, where
observers can get notified when a share changes.
Creational patterns are the most tricky to get right. They
are frequently abused for building systems that are non
object oriented. In this section we look at the three most
common creational patterns and show how they should be
Ask a group of novice programmers if they know any patterns
and the "singleton" is the most common answer you
will get, next to "factory" and "MVC". In
this section we discover the real purpose of this pattern.
The purpose of this pattern is to be able to substitute one
singleton object for another without the clients having to
know. Sadly most of the time it is used to put global
variables into systems. We learn how to correctly use this
One of the characteristics of the singleton is that the
constructor is private. This makes it impossible to create
several instances. We have a look at how to allow for
A lot has been written about how to actually initialize the
instance. The most tricky part is getting synchronization
correct. We look at solutions and reasons why the most simple
option is usually the best.
When to use & avoid
There are several reasons why we should avoid using the
singleton. It makes our system very static. It is difficult
to reset instances. We cause global access to shared values.
In this section we look at the reasons why singletons cause
so many problems in designs.
The GoF factory method pattern is used to allow subclasses
to create their own instances of their own specific types. An
example would be the iterator() method of the Collection
interface. We give examples of how and when this should be
Martin Fowler uses the name "factory method" to
describe something quite different to the GoF pattern. His is
a static method that creates objects. This is a useful
pattern in its own right, but is not the GoF pattern. In Java
we can often use his pattern with the reflection API.
This pattern is used to produce decoupled systems. We
combine this with strategy and facade to produce a flexible
design. We also ask some hard questions to make sure that we
all understand the differences between the interpretations of
We use this pattern to manage families of objects that need
to be created. An example is when we need to support GUI
components for several operating systems. We show how we can
use this pattern to create software that can easily be
migrated to new hardware.
Behavioral Patterns (II)
In the second set of behavior patterns, we learn how to
decouple our designs even further with the Visitor and
Command. We implement a multi-level undo and redo with the
memento. We show how to build chains of implementers with the
Chain of Responsibility. We end with the State Pattern that
should be used whenever we have more than a couple of states
in our classes.
The Visitor integrates well with the composite patterns. It
provides a way to modify the methods invoked on all of the
objects in the structure. Instead of hard-coding the
composite method, we provide a mechanism to "visit"
each class and apply class specific methods. It is a great
pattern for managing collections of disparate classes.
The command pattern helps to clearly assign
responsibilities, which leads to a decoupled design. We show
why the typical AWT action listener is not the best way of
using the pattern. We then demonstrate how we get a cleaner
design when we follow the pattern structure more closely. The
exercise is challenging as the first instinct is to use an
object adapter, but that would lead to an inflexible
Swing and AWT use the command pattern to bind actions to
receivers. We learn the advantages of an event based,
In Java 5, thread pools were introduced into the standard
JDK. These solve the question of how to deal with results
that you might want to return from commands. We look at how
Runnable and Callable is used within the ExecutorService.
We learn how to use the memento pattern to store state. This
allows us to do multi-level undo and redo, combined with the
Command pattern. The memento is also compared to the
serialization mechanism in Java.
Chain of Responsibility
This pattern allows us to define flexible systems where we
do not need to specify at coding time which object will
process a message. This is set up by configuring the chain.
We look at some of the issues that happen when a message
drops off the end of the chain.
The last behavioral pattern is the State pattern. Use this
whenever you have more than one conditional statement in your
class that changes the branch depending on some internal
field. It is one of the most useful patterns to produce
The state pattern can be implemented in more than five
different ways. We look at the advantage and disadvantage of
Structural Patterns (II)
We end our course with three structural patterns that are
again fairly easy to grasp. Flyweight, similarly to the
Facade, is mainly used to deal with the effects of patterns -
lots of little objects. We see how Bridge is used to decouple
the abstraction from the implementation. Lastly we show how
we can change the interface of an object dynamically with the
The flyweight is used to reduce the memory footprint of
objects. It does this by changing intrinsic state to
extrinsic and then sharing instances. Well factored code
often causes lots of objects to be constructed. The flyweight
is one of the solutions to manage this problem.
We look at the impact on performance of using this pattern.
Even though there will be less object instances, the
flyweight mechanism can add contention to the system. This
would cause performance drag under heavily threaded
To know the impact of large numbers of small objects, we
look at the memory structure of objects in Java. This will
give us a metric to calculate the potential savings of using
the flyweight pattern.
The bridge pattern helps us to define separate hierarchies
for the abstractions and implementations. We learn how this
relates to strategy and adapter. Bridge helps us design
systems that can work with different external components,
without changing the main abstraction.
The decorator is used for two main purposes. Firstly we use
it to add functionality to existing objects. We call this
decorating. Secondly we can take it away from objects. We
call this filtering.
We learn why the special collections (unmodifiable,
synchronized, checked, etc.) are in fact not decorators, but
rather another pattern. We also demonstrate how we would
design the collection classes using the decorator or filter
The course ends with a conclusion about what we have learned
and where to study them further. We also look at how the
patterns are all connected.
We give a number of great references where you can learn new
patterns and study the subtleties of patterns further.
Lastly, we give some pointers on how to write your own
patterns. This process is called discovering or inventing a
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